Chapter 4. Air Traffic Control

Section 1. Services Available to Pilots
4-1-1. Air Route Traffic Control Centers 4-1-13. Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
4-1-2. Control Towers 4-1-14. Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS) - Alaska FSSs Only
4-1-3. Flight Service Stations 4-1-15. Radar Traffic Information Service
4-1-4. Recording and Monitoring 4-1-16. Safety Alert
4-1-5. Communications Release of IFR Aircraft Landing at an Airport Without an Operating Control Tower 4-1-17. Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft
4-1-6. Pilot Visits to Air Traffic Facilities 4-1-18. Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft
4-1-7. Operation Take-off and Operation Raincheck 4-1-19. Tower En Route Control (TEC)
4-1-8. Approach Control Service for VFR Arriving Aircraft 4-1-20. Transponder Operation
4-1-9. Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers 4-1-21. Hazardous Area Reporting Service
4-1-10. IFR Approaches/Ground Vehicle Operations 4-1-22. Airport Reservation Operations and Special Traffic Management Programs
4-1-11. Designated UNICOM/MULTICOM Frequencies 4-1-23. Requests for Waivers and Authorizations from Title 14, Code of Federal  Regulations (14 CFR)
  4-1-12. Use of UNICOM for ATC Purposes   4-1-24. Weather System Processor


Section 2. Radio Communications Phraseology and Techniques
4-2-1. General 4-2-8. Figures
4-2-2. Radio Technique 4-2-9. Altitudes and Flight Levels
4-2-3. Contact Procedures 4-2-10. Directions
4-2-4. Aircraft Call Signs 4-2-11. Speeds
4-2-5. Description of Interchange or Leased Aircraft 4-2-12. Time
4-2-6. Ground Station Call Signs 4-2-13. Communications with Tower when Aircraft Transmitter or Receiver or Both are Inoperative
4-2-7. Phonetic Alphabet 4-2-14. Communications for VFR Flights


Section 3. Airport Operations
4-3-1. General 4-3-14. Communications
4-3-2. Airports with an Operating Control Tower 4-3-15. Gate Holding Due to Departure Delays
4-3-3. Traffic Patterns 4-3-16. VFR Flights in Terminal Areas
4-3-4. Visual Indicators at Airports Without an Operating Control Tower 4-3-17. VFR Helicopter Operations at Controlled Airports
4-3-5. Unexpected Maneuvers in the Airport Traffic Pattern 4-3-18. Taxiing
4-3-6. Use of Runways/Declared Distances 4-3-19. Taxi During Low Visibility
4-3-7. Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Detection Systems 4-3-20. Exiting the Runway After Landing
4-3-8. Braking Action Reports and Advisories 4-3-21. Practice Instrument Approaches
4-3-9. Runway Friction Reports and Advisories 4-3-22. Option Approach
4-3-10. Intersection Takeoffs 4-3-23. Use of Aircraft Lights
4-3-11. Pilot Responsibilities When Conducting Land and Hold  Short Operations (LAHSO) 4-3-24. Flight Inspection/`Flight Check' Aircraft in Terminal Areas
4-3-12. Low Approach 4-3-25. Hand Signals
4-3-13. Traffic Control Light Signals 4-3-26. Operations at Uncontrolled Airports With Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS)/Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS)


Section 4. ATC Clearances and Aircraft Separation
4-4-1. Clearance 4-4-11. IFR Separation Standards
4-4-2. Clearance Prefix 4-4-12. Speed Adjustments
4-4-3. Clearance Items 4-4-13. Runway Separation
4-4-4. Amended Clearances 4-4-14. Visual Separation
  4-4-5. Coded Departure Route (CDR)   4-4-15. Use of Visual Clearing Procedures
4-4-6. Special VFR Clearances 4-4-16. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System
4-4-7. Pilot Responsibility upon Clearance Issuance 4-4-17. Traffic Information Service (TIS)
4-4-8. IFR Clearance VFR-on-top 4-4-18. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
4-4-9. VFR/IFR Flights 4-4-19. Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)
  4-4-10. Adherence to Clearance      


Section 5. Surveillance Sytems
4-5-1. Radar  4-5-5. Airport Surface Detection Equipment - Model X
4-5-2. Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) 4-5-6. Traffic Information Service (TIS)
  4-5-3. Surveillance Radar   4-5-7. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
(ADS-B) Services
  4-5-4. Precision Approach Radar (PAR)   4-5-8. Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B)


Section 6. Operational Policy/Procedures for Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) in the Domestic U.S., Alaska, Offshore Airspace and the
San Juan FIR

  4-6-1. Applicability and RVSM Mandate (Date/Time and Area) 4-6-7. Guidance on Wake Turbulence
  4-6-2. Flight Level Orientation Scheme 4-6-8. Pilot/Controller Phraseology
  4-6-3. Aircraft and Operator Approval Policy/Procedures, RVSM Monitoring and
Databases for Aircraft and Operator Approval
4-6-9. Contingency Actions: Weather Encounters and Aircraft System Failures
  4-6-4. Flight Planning into RVSM Airspace 4-6-10. Procedures for Accommodation of Non-RVSM Aircraft
  4-6-5. Pilot RVSM Operating Practices and Procedures 4-6-11. Non-RVSM Aircraft Requesting Climb to and Descent from Flight Levels
Above RVSM Airspace Without Intermediate Level Off
  4-6-6. Guidance on Severe Turbulence and Mountain Wave Activity (MWA)    



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