CHAPTER 3. Navigation

Navigation  3-1
Area Navigation (RNAV) Basics 3-2
RNAV Concept 3-2
FMS/RNAV Computer 3-2
FMS/RNAV/Autopilot Interface: Display and Controls 3-3
Accessing Information in the FMS 3-3
Making Entries in the FMS 3-4
Integrated Avionics Systems 3-4
Learning: Simulators for Learning and Practice 3-5
Flight Planning 3-5
Preflight Preparation 3-5
FMS/RNAV Approval For IFR Operations 3-6
Navigation Database Currency 3-6
Alternative Means of Navigation 3-6
NOTAMs Relevant To GPS 3-6
GPS Signal Availability 3-6
Alternate Airports 3-7
Aircraft Equipment Suffixes 3-7
Suitability of an RNAV Unit for VFR Flight 3-7
Programming the Flight Route 3-7
The Flight Planning Page 3-8
En Route Waypoints and Procedural Waypoints 3-8
Entering En Route Waypoints 3-8
Entering Airways 3-8
Entering Procedures 3-9
Risk: Taking Off Without Entering a Flight Plan 3-9
Reviewing the Flight Route 3-9
Catching Errors: Using the FMs Flight Planning Function To Cross-Check Calculations 3-9
Check the Waypoints 3-10
Check the Distances 3-10
Check the Desired Tracks 3-11
Check for Route Discontinuities 3-11
Maintaining Proficiency: Aeronautical Knowledge 3-11
Coupling the FMs to the Navigation Indicator(s) 3-11
Common Error: Displaying the Wrong Navigation Source 3-12
Awareness: Mode Awareness 3-13
Essential Skills 3-13
En Route Navigation 3-13
The Active Waypoint 3-14
Desired Track 3-14
Track 3-14
Groundspeed and ETA 3-14
Fuel Used and Time Remaining 3-14
Arriving at the Active Waypoint 3-14
Waypoint Alerting 3-15
Turn Anticipation 3-15
Waypoint Sequencing 3-15
Awareness: Making Waypoint Callouts 3-15
Setting the Course to New Active Waypoint 3-16
En Route Sensitivity 3-16
GPS Signal Status 3-16
Accessing Navigational Information En Route 3-16
Essential Skills 3-16
En Route Modifications 3-17
Adding and Deleting Waypoints From the Programmed Route 3-17
Direct To 3-17
Risk: What Lies Ahead on a Direct-To Route? 3-18
Cancel Direct To 3-18
Selecting a Different Instrument Procedure or Transition 3-18
Proceeding Directly to the Nearest Airport 3-18
Essential Skills 3-18
Descent 3-19
Elements of Descent Planning Calculations 3-19
Manual Descent Calculations 3-20
Coordinating Calculations with Aeronautical Charts 3-21
Alternate Navigation Planning 3-21
Calculating Descents with the FMS 3-21
Managing Speed 3-22
Descent Flying Concepts 3-22
Flying the Descent 3-23
Determining Arrival at the Top-of-Descent Point 3-23
Early Descents 3-23
Late Descents 3-24
Common Error: Not Considering Winds During Descent Planning 3-25
Essential Skills 3-25
Intercept And Track Course 3-25
Intercepting and Tracking a Different Course to the Active Waypoint 3-25
The Nonsequencing Mode 3-25
Common Error: Forgetting To Re-Engage Sequencing Mode After Course Intercept 3-26
Awareness: Remembering To Make Needed Mode Changes 3-26
Intercepting and Tracking a Course to a Different Waypoint 3-26
Common Error: Setting the Wrong Inbound Course During a Course Intercept 3-27
Common Error: Setting the Wrong Active Waypoint During a Course Intercept 3-27
Catching Errors: A Helpful Callout Procedure for Course Intercepts 3-27
Essential Skills 3-28
Holding 3-28
Preprogrammed Holding Patterns 3-28
Common Error: Mismanaging the Sequencing/Nonsequencing Modes During a Hold 3-30
Essential Skills 3-30
ARCS 3-30
Essential Skills 3-30
GPS And RNAV (GPS) Approaches 3-30
LNAV 3-35
LPV 3-35
GPS or RNAV (GPS) Approach Waypoints 3-35
Flying a GPS or RNAV (GPS) Approach 3-35
Terminal Mode 3-36
Approach Mode 3-36
Approach Not Active 3-36
Vectored Approaches 3-36
Awareness: Briefing the Approach 3-37
Common Error: Forgetting To Verify the Approach Mode 3-37
Common Error: Using the Wrong Approach Minimums 3-37
Common Error: Forgetting To Reengage Sequencing Mode Prior to Final Approach Waypoint 3-37
Essential Skills 3-38
Course Reversals 3-38
Preprogrammed Course Reversals 3-38
Common Error: Mismanaging the Sequencing/Nonsequencing Modes During a Course Reversal 3-38
Essential Skills 3-38
Missed Approaches 3-40
Recognizing the Missed Approach Point 3-41
Complying With ATC-Issued Missed Approach Instructions 3-41
Setting Up Next Procedure in Hold 3-41
Common Error: Noncompliance With Initial Missed Approach Instructions 3-42
Essential Skills 3-42
Ground-based Radio Navigation 3-42
Configuring FMs To Receive Ground-Based 3-42
Radio Navigation Signals 3-42
Tuning and Identifying Radio Navigation Facilities 3-42
Displaying Radio Navigation Signals on the Navigation Indicator 3-42
Awareness: Using All Available Navigation Resources 3-42
Flying a Precision Approach Using Ground-based Navigation Facilities 3-42
Flying a Nonprecision Approach Using Ground-Based Navigation Facilities 3-42
Maintaining Proficiency: Practicing All Navigation Skills 3-43
Essential Skills 3-43
Chapter Summary 3-44

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